PCA tries to find mutually orthogonal components whereas in ICA the components may not be orthogonal. ICA searches for mutually independent components. PCA tries to maximize the variance of the input signal along with the principal components, while ICA minimizes mutual information in found components.
Data are just symbols that represent stimuli or signals. Information is data that has meaning and purpose. Knowledge is information that has been processed, organized, or structured in some way, or put into practice in some way. Wisdom is integrated knowledge so information that is made super-useful.
Both ASCII and Unicode are encoding standards. ASCII is an initial standard that was first published in 1963, whereas Unicode is a larger standard. Unicode standards are implemented by either UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-32. ANSI is a misnomer of a Windows encoding standard but is not recognized by ANSI itself.
A fixed VoIP is an internet-based phone line corresponding to a specific physical address. A non-fixed VoIP is another internet-based phone line, but it does not correspond to a particular address. Both come with benefits and neither is inherently better than the other as different situations call for separate systems.
Offshore software development involves hiring from distant countries to work remotely. Nearshore is similar to offshore, except companies hire from neighboring countries or countries with comparable time zones with few cultural differences. Onshore software development involves hiring workers from your own country.